In accordance with the industrial safety regulations (BetrSichV), continuous fences to protect against falling or ejected items (Annex 1 No. 2.5 BetrSichV) cannot always be used on large, accessible plant and machinery due to large workpieces that can only be handled by crane.
When designing the safety concept for machinery safety, it is usually necessary to allow for sufficient freedom of movement for the operator when fitting and setting up the machine (in combination with reduced velocities and rotational speeds). An energy calculation must be applied to consider the possible extent to which pieces can be ejected. As such the result is a "semi-closed" safety concept. Organisation and personal protection equipment plays a significant role in this safety concept.
The technical rules for operational safety (TRBS) 2111, parts 1 and 2, should also be considered here.