Standards are agreements between different interest groups (manufacturers, consumers, notified bodies, health and safety authorities and governments). They describe the state of the art at the time they are produced. Depending on the application site of the machine or product, various statutory regulations may apply, making it necessary to apply various standards. Selecting correctly helps the machine manufacturer to comply with statutory requirements.
Overview of basic standards (A+B standards)
The basis for plant and machinery safety
Basic standards (A and B standards) contain essential information on design, strategy and operation - for the safety of plant and machinery.
The most important generic standards / A and B standards:
|Safe design (mechanics)||EN ISO 12100|
|Choice of safeguards|
Fixed guards (safety fences, barriers, covers)
|EN 953, EN ISO 14119|
Movable guards (Interlocking of safety gates, etc.)
|EN 953, EN ISO 14119|
|Unexpected (re)start||EN 1037|
|Protective devices (light grids, light beam devices, scanners, pressure-sensitive mats, etc.)||EN 1760-3, EN 61496|
|Two-hand control devices||EN ISO 13855, EN 574|
|Adjustable guards restricting access||EN 953|
|Emergency stop/emergency off||EN ISO 13850|
|Effectiveness of safeguard|
|Safety distances (protection of upper/lower limbs)||EN ISO 13857|
|Minimum distances (protection against crushing of body parts)||EN 349|
|Access to machinery||EN 547-1/-3|
|Positioning of safeguards||EN ISO 13855|
|Mechanics||EN ISO 12100, EN ISO 13849-1, EN / IEC 62061|
|Pneumatic equipment||EN ISO 4414|
|Hydraulic equipment||EN ISO 4413|
|Electrical equipment||EN 60204-1, EN 60947-1/-8, BGVA3|
Safeguards are necessary to provide operators with as much protection as possible from hazards that may arise during machine operation. It is the duty of the manufacturer to select an appropriate safeguard. This must neither increase the risk nor obstruct work on the machine. It's in the manufacturer's interests to provide precise justification for any decision not to equip moving parts with safeguards.
There are a vast number of regulations that deal with safeguards on machinery. A large number of these are summarised in the Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC.