The European Union is experiencing ever closer union. This leads to increasing harmonisation of laws, regulations and provisions in engineering. Initially, the EU formulates general safety objectives via directives.These safety objectives require precise specification. The actual provision is made via standards.
EU directives do not come into effect until countries within the EU incorporate them into domestic law. In each EU country, a law or provision refers to the relevant EU directive and thus elevates it to the status of domestic law.